Appropriations Watch: FY 2024

Updated 2/13/2024: On the morning of Tuesday, Feb. 13, the Senate passed an amended version of a $95 billion national security supplemental that includes funds for Ukraine, Israel, Taiwan, and operations in the Red Sea. Previously, the Senate failed to advance a $118.3 billion national security supplemental that included funds for Ukraine, Israel, and other defense and border security priorities, so it was reconsidered without the border security provisions. The House's new $17.6 billion Israel supplemental was defeated under suspension of the rules on Tuesday, Feb. 6.

On Jan. 18, the House and Senate both passed a third continuing resolution (CR) for fiscal year 2024 to avoid a partial government shutdown at midnight on Friday, Jan. 19. The President signed the CR on Jan. 19. The new measure would extend the "laddered" approach from the previous CR, with the first set of appropriations bills expiring on Friday, March 1: Agriculture, Energy-Water, Military Construction-VA, and Transportation-HUD (these were previously set to expire Jan. 19). The second set of appropriations bills would expire a week later, on Friday, March 8: Commerce-Justice-Science, Defense, Financial Services-General Government, Homeland Security, Interior-Environment, Labor-HHS-Education, Legislative Branch, and State-Foreign Operations bills (these were previously set to expire Feb. 2). 

Congressional leaders announced a deal on topline appropriations levels for fiscal year 2024 on Sunday, Jan. 7, which could pave the way for completion of appropriations in the coming weeks, but some opposition remains. The agreement provides for a total of $773 billion in nondefense discretionary spending, including $704 billion in base nondefense spending and $69 billion in side deals, and $886 billion in defense spending.  

The new fiscal year began on October 1, and Congress struggled to enact a CR by the end of September to avoid a government shutdown. The House initially considered a CR with border security provisions attached, but it failed to pass. Lawmakers ultimately enacted a CR through Nov. 17 that lacked the supplemental funding for Ukraine favored by Senate leaders. However, Ukraine funding, supplemental funding for Israel, border security, and supplemental funding for certain domestic priorities are likely to be considered as appropriations for FY 2024 are completed. 

The Biden administration has released supplemental funding requests of $106 billion for national security priorities and $56 billion for domestic programs. The Senate Appropriations Committee released a $110.5 billion national security supplemental that included funding for Ukraine, Israel, and U.S. border security in early December, but it failed to advance on a procedural vote. 

With the enactment of the Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA), appropriations bills were marked up in the House and Senate in June and July. The FRA caps total base discretionary spending at $1.590 trillion for FY 2024, with base defense spending capped at $886 billion (a 3 percent increase from FY 2023) and base nondefense spending capped at $704 billion (up to a 9 percent decrease from FY 2023, depending on how it is measured). 

As we did last year, we'll be tracking the bills as they move from committee to the House and Senate floor and onto the President's desk.

The table below shows the status of each appropriations bill. To learn more about the appropriations process, read our Appropriations 101 paper. 

Appropriations will be one of several deadlines Congress will face over the coming months. See a list of the upcoming fiscal deadlines here.

 
Item House Senate
Continuing Resolution through March 1/March 8

Passed by a 314-108 vote under suspension of the rules on Jan. 18

Signed into law on Jan. 19

Passed by a 77-18 vote on Jan. 18

Continuing Resolution through Jan. 19/Feb. 2

Passed by a vote of 336-95 under suspension of the rules on Nov. 14

Passed by a vote of 87-11 on Nov. 15; signed into law on Nov. 16

Continuing Resolution through Nov. 17 

Passed by a 335-91 vote on Sept. 30

Passed by an 88-9 vote; signed by the President on Sept. 30

Senate Foreign Aid Supplemental (February version)

N/A

Motion to invoke cloture on the motion to proceed failed on Feb. 7 by a 49 to 50 vote; motion to reconsider agreed to on Feb. 7 by a 58 to 41 vote

Modified bill passed on Feb. 13 by a 70-29 vote

House Israel Supplemental Funding (February version)

Failed under suspension of the rules on Feb. 6 by a 250-180 vote

N/A

Senate Foreign Aid and Border Security Supplemental (December version)

N/A

Cloture on the motion to proceed failed by a 49-51 vote on Dec. 6

House Israel Supplemental Funding (November version)

Passed by a vote of 226-196 on Nov. 2

N/A

Ukraine Supplemental Funding as Stand-Alone Bill

Passed by a 311-117 vote on Sept. 28

N/A

Budget Resolution Approved by committee on Sept. 20 by a 20-14 vote N/A
302(b) Approved by full committee on June 15 by a vote of 33 to 27 Approved by full committee on June 22
Agriculture

Approved by subcommittee on May 18 by voice vote
Approved by full committee on June 14 by a 34 to 27 vote

Failed on a 191-237 vote on Sept. 28

Approved by full committee on June 22
Motion to proceed to three-bill minibus agreed to by a vote of 91-7 on Sept. 14; passed by a vote of 82-15 on Nov. 1
Commerce, Justice, Science

Approved by subcommittee on July 14

Rule to bill failed to advance by a 198-225 vote on Nov. 15

Approved by full committee on July 13 by a 28 to 1 vote
Defense 

Approved by subcommittee on June 15
Approved by full committee on June 22 by a 34 to 24 vote
Rule to begin floor consideration failed by a 212-216 vote on Sept. 21; rule for bill failed to advance by a 212-214 vote on Sept. 19

Passed by a 218-210 vote on Sept. 28

Approved by full committee on July 27 by a 27-1 vote
Energy and Water Development

Approved by subcommittee on June 15
Approved by full committee on June 22 by a 34 to 24 vote

Passed by a 210-199 vote on Oct. 26

Approved by full committee on July 20 by a 29-0 vote
Financial Services and General Government

Approved by subcommittee on June 22
Approved by full committee on July 13 by a 34 to 26 vote

General debate and amendments considered on floor on Nov. 8 and 9

Approved by full committee on July 13 by a 29 to 0 vote
Homeland Security

Approved by subcommittee on May 18 by voice vote
Approved by full committee on June 21 by a vote of 33 to 25

Passed on a 220-208 vote on Sept. 28

Approved by full committee on July 27 by a 24-4 vote
Interior, Environment

Approved by subcommittee on July 13
Approved by full committee on July 19 by a 33 to 27 vote

Passed by a vote of 213-203 on Nov. 3

Approved by full committee on July 27 by a 28-0 vote
Labor, HHS, Education

Approved by subcommittee on July 14

General debate and amendments considered on Nov. 14 and 15

Approved by full committee on July 27 by a 26-2 vote
Legislative Branch

Approved by subcommittee on May 17 by voice vote
Approved by full committee on June 21 by a vote of 33 to 24

Passed by a vote of 214-197 on Nov. 1

Approved by full committee on July 13 by a 29-0 vote
Military Construction, VA Approved by subcommittee on May 17 by voice vote
Approved by full committee on June 13 by a 34 to 27 vote
Passed on July 27 by a 219-211 vote
Approved by full committee on June 22
Motion to proceed to three-bill minibus agreed to by a vote of 91-7 on Sept. 14; passed by a vote of 82-15 on Nov. 1
State, Foreign Operations

Approved by subcommittee on June 23
Approved by full committee on July 12 by a 32 to 27 vote

Passed by a 216-212 vote on Sept. 28

Approved by full committee on July 20 by a 27-2 vote
Transportation, HUD

Approved by subcommittee on July 12
Approved by full committee on July 18 by a 34 to 27 vote

General debate and amendments considered on floor on Nov. 6 and 7; proceedings postponed

Approved by full committee on June 22
Motion to proceed to three-bill minibus agreed to by a vote of 91-7 on Sept. 14; passed by a vote of 82-15 on Nov. 1

Sources: House Appropriations Committee, Senate Appropriations Committee, Congress.gov. All dates are in 2023 unless noted otherwise.

As we explain in Appropriations 101, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees approve 302(b) spending levels for each subcommittee after the topline 302(a) levels are determined by the Budget Committees. Below is an excerpt (click here to read the full report).

How does Congress determine the total level of appropriations?

After the President submits the Administration’s budget proposal to Congress, the House and Senate Budget Committees are each directed to report a budget resolution that, if passed by their respective chambers, would then be reconciled in a budget conference (to learn more, see Q&A: Everything You Need to Know About a Budget Conference).

The resulting budget resolution, which is a concurrent resolution and therefore not signed by the President, includes what is known as a 302(a) allocation that sets a total amount of money for the Appropriations Committees to spend. For example, the conferenced Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 budget between the House and Senate set the 302(a) limit for that year at $1.017 trillion.

In the absence of a budget resolution, each chamber may enact a deeming resolution that sets the 302(a) allocation for that chamber. Leaders of the House and Senate Budget Committees may propose deeming resolutions at whatever level they find necessary to fund discretionary priorities and to officially set 302(a) allocations for the fiscal year. Deeming resolutions for FY 2024 had been expected to adhere to the $1.590 trillion level included in the Fiscal Responsibility Act, but the House may draft its appropriations bills to the $1.471 trillion level from FY 2022 and set its 302(a) allocations accordingly. In the House, this can be done by a simple majority vote, which is how the FY 2023 deeming resolution passed. However, in the Senate such a resolution does not have privileged consideration, making it vulnerable to a filibuster.

The appropriations process for the current fiscal year, FY 2023, was completed in December 2022. The House adopted a deeming resolution for FY 2023 in June 2022 and passed six appropriations bills over the summer, while the Senate released its bills in late July and passed none before the new fiscal year. Lawmakers ultimately agreed to an FY 2023 omnibus appropriations bill in December 2022 that provided $1.602 trillion in base discretionary spending, an increase of 8.9 percent from comparable FY 2022 level.

How does Congress allocate appropriations?

Once they receive 302(a) allocations, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees set 302(b) allocations to divide total appropriations among the 12 subcommittees dealing with different parts of the budget. The subcommittees then decide how to distribute funds within their 302(b) allocations. The 302(b) allocations are voted on by the respective Appropriations Committees, but they are not subject to review or vote by the full House or Senate. The table below lists the FY 2023 regular (non-emergency) appropriations along with the House and Senate FY 2024 302(b) allocations. The table will be updated as both the House and Senate Appropriations Committees release their 302(b) allocations for FY 2024.

 

The table below compares actual funding for FY 2023 with the FY 2024 302(b) allocations from the House and Senate.  

Budget Authority Allocations to Appropriations Subcommittees (billions)
Subcommittee FY 23 Enacted Level President's FY 24 Budget House FY 24 Senate FY 24
Agriculture $25.5 N/A $17.8 $26.0
Commerce, Justice, Science $82.4 N/A $58.7 $69.6
Defense $797.7 N/A $826.4 $823.3
Energy and Water Development $54.0 N/A $52.4 $56.7
Financial Services and General Government $27.6 N/A $11.3 $17.0
Homeland Security $60.7 N/A $62.8 $56.9
Interior, Environment $38.9 N/A $25.4 $37.9
Labor, HHS, Education $207.4 N/A $147.1 $195.2
Legislative Branch $6.9 N/A $6.7 ($5.3 House-only spending formally approved) $6.8
Military Construction, VA $154.2 N/A $155.7 $154.4
State, Foreign Operations $59.7 N/A $41.4 $58.4
Transportation, HUD $87.3 N/A $65.2 $88.1
Undistributed Changes in Mandatory Programs N/A -$30.6* N/A N/A
Total, Base Discretionary $1.602 trillion $1.695 trillion* $1.471 trillion^ $1.590 trillion^

Sources: House Appropriations Committee, Senate Appropriations Committee, CBO estimate of H.R. 2617 (FY 2023 omnibus), Office of Management and Budget, CQ.
*The President's FY 2024 budget proposes $1.726 trillion in discretionary funding partially offset by $30.6 billion in changes in mandatory spending programs (CHIMPs).

^The Senate 302(b) totals reflect the cap as enacted in the Fiscal Responsibility Act; the House is expected to limit its total to the FY 2022 level. New Senate allocations with emergency spending and other revisions that were filed on September 12 total $1.652 trillion and include $36.7 billion for emergency spending, $20.4 billion for disaster relief, and $2.65 billion for wildfire suppression. Emergency spending is distributed as follows: $10.8 billion for Transportation-HUD, $8 billion for Defense, $4.5 billion for Labor=HHS-Education, $4.3 billion for Homeland Security, $3.25 billion for State-Foreign Operations, $2.25 billion for Commerce-Justice-Science, $2.195 billion for Interior-Environment, and $1.365 billion for Energy-Water. Disaster relief is spending is allocated to Homeland Security ($20.261 billion) and Financial Services-General Government ($143 million). All $2.65 billion in fire suppression spending is allocated to Interior-Environment.

As Congress considers appropriations bills, it is important that lawmakers avoid budget gimmicks and contemplate the longer-term trajectory of discretionary spending.

If you have any questions about terminology or the appropriations process, please see our Appropriations 101 report, and stay tuned to our blog for continuing coverage.