What's in the Latest House National Security Supplementals?

The House of Representatives is set to soon vote on a series of national security-related supplemental appropriations bills. Three of the bills provide a total of $96.2 billion of emergency discretionary budget authority to Ukraine, Israel, and the Indo-Pacific region while a fourth bill includes other policies related to international sanctions and national security. Altogether, these bills would add about $95 billion to deficits over the next decade.

In February, the Senate passed the National Security Act that combines aid to Ukraine and Israel with other defense-related priorities, which would provide a net $95.5 billion of emergency discretionary budget authority. The funding amounts in both the Senate bill and the combination of the House bills are roughly identical, with the House altering some funding allocation between Air Force accounts in the its Ukraine bill. There are also slight differences in the nuclear security provisions: while both the House and Senate provide $272 million in appropriations, the Senate bill includes language resulting in reductions of budget authority in later years. 

Comparing the House and Senate National Security Supplementals

Policy House  Senate
Ukraine Bill $61.7 billion $61.0 billion
Ukraine military aid & nuclear protection $50.7 billion $49.9 billion
Ukraine economic support & diplomacy $9.6 billion $9.6 billion
Aid to Ukrainian refugees $1.4 billion $1.4 billion
Israel Bill $26.4 billion $26.4 billion
Israel military aid  $14.3 billion $14.3 billion
Humanitarian aid to Israel and Gaza  $9.3 billion $9.3 billion
Funding to address conflict in the Red Sea $2.4 billion $2.4 billion
Other funding $0.4 billion $0.4 billion
Indo-Pacific Bill $8.1 billion $8.1 billion
Funding for submarine capacity building $3.3 billion $3.3 billion
Other funding for Indo-Pacific region $4.8 billion $4.8 billion
Total, Increase in Budget Authority $96.2 billion $95.5 billion
Memo: Increase in Outlays $94.8 billion $94.7 billion

Sources: House Appropriations Committee, Senate Appropriations Committee, and Congressional Budget Office. Figures may not sum due to rounding and only include emergency discretionary spending.

The Ukraine bill provides nearly $61.7 billion of aid, including $50.7 billion for defense and nuclear protection, $9.6 billion for economic support and diplomacy, and $481 million for refugee assistance for Ukrainians fleeing the conflict (which CBO scores as increasing budget authority by $1.4 billion). The Israel bill provides nearly $26.4 billion of aid, including $14.3 billion of military aid for Israel, $2.4 billion for other U.S. Central Command operations responding to activity in the Red Sea, $9.3 billion of funding for humanitarian assistance to Israel and Gaza, and $400 million in other funding would be used for homeland security grants to protect places of worship. Finally, the Indo-Pacific bill provides $8.1 billion of aid, including $3.3 billion for submarine capacity building with the Department of Defense and Military Construction budgets and $4.8 billion for other support for Taiwan and other allies in the region, such as military equipment transfers. 

In addition to the above bills, the House will also consider the 21st Century Peace Through Strength Act of 2024, which includes fiscal effects of the FEND Off Fentanyl Act and the Rebuilding Economic Prosperity and Opportunity for Ukrainians Act. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that both components will be roughly deficit neutral, with the former increasing spending by $60 million over a decade while bringing in $77 million of revenue and the latter increasing spending by $5 billion offset by $5 billion of revenue. The latter bill would seize Russian assets and repurposing them to provide further aid to Ukraine, limited to the total amount that is seized. 

While the emergencies in Ukraine, Israel, and the Indo-Pacific present pressing matters for policymakers, so too does our high and rising national debt. The interest rates surging and debt approaching record levels, policymakers should work to offset these costs as possible. There are plenty of options to pay for this spending rather than adding to the national credit card.