Upcoming Congressional Fiscal Policy Deadlines

Updated 11/28/22: The Department of Education announced it would extend the federal student loan payment pause to the sooner of 60 days after resolution of the student debt cancellation litigation or 60 days after June 30, 2023 (which would be the end of August, based on our understanding).

The next few years will include several predictable fiscal policy deadlines that will force congressional action. Numerous provisions providing COVID relief expire at the end of the year. Many of the regular non-COVID deadlines could bring additional costs if Congress acts irresponsibly, or they could present an opportunity for Congress to reduce deficits.

We will regularly update this tracker to help reporters, congressional staff, and others interested in fiscal policy keep tabs on major deadlines. We recommend that you bookmark it and come back to check in.

Congress may be compelled to act on each of these dates or enact short-term extensions to move the deadlines to buy time for action. 

Issue Deadline More Information

Funding the Government / Appropriations

December 16, 2022

Congress enacted a continuing resolution (CR) in late September that funds the government through mid-December. Q&A: Everything You Should Know About Government ShutdownsAppropriations Watch

National Flood Insurance Program Authorization Expires

December 16, 2022

Short-term extension included in September CR. More on NFIP

Maternal, Infant, & Early Childhood Home Visiting Expires

December 16, 2022

Short-term extension included in September CR.

Authorization of TANF & Related Programs Expires

December 16, 2022

Short-term extension included in September CR.

Medicaid Assistance for Territories

December 16, 2022

The Medicaid federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP) has been temporarily raised for federal territories since late 2019. A short-term extension was included in the September CR. Without additional action, the FMAP for the territories would revert to 55 percent.

Food & Drug Administration User Fee Programs

December 16, 2022/End of FY 2027

An extension of user fee authorities was enacted through FY 2027 under the September CR, but certain policies related to drug and device regulation were only extended until mid-December.

Medicare Radiation Oncology Rules

December 31, 2022

In late 2021, Congress enacted a delay of Medicare radiation oncology payment rules until 2023.

Medicare Physician Payments

December 31, 2022

A temporary 3 percent bonus payment for physicians for 2022 was enacted in late 2021. In addition, current Medicare physician Alternative Payment Model (APM) revenue thresholds of 50% expire (based on performance year 2022), meaning providers would need to achieve thresholds of 75% to continue receiving certain payment incentives. 

Other Tax Phase-Ins & Expirations

December 31, 2022

Several tax provisions enacted as part of the 2017 tax cuts will begin for tax year 2022, including amortization of R&E investments, a change to the calculation of net interest deductions, and other ‘extenders.’ See Year-End ‘Extenders’ Could Worsen Deficits and Inflation.

Major IRA Provisions Begin

January 1, 2023

Under the Inflation Reduction Act, certain companies meeting a revenue threshold will owe a corporate minimum tax beginning in 2023. A stock buyback tax will also take effect. Clean manufacturing tax credits and certain Medicare prescription drug benefit changes will take effect beginning in 2023. 

Statutory PAYGO

December 2022 or January 2023

Statutory pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rules provide for an across-the-board sequester of non-exempt mandatory spending programs if lawmakers enact net deficit-increasing legislation over the course of the year. An estimated cut of about $120 billion is scheduled following the 2021 American Rescue Plan and subsequent legislation to deduct any sequestration total from the 2022 scorecard and add it to the 2023 scorecard. Because statutory PAYGO requires the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to issue a sequestration order within 15 days of the end of a congressional session.

Public Health Emergency Declaration

Jan. 11, 2023

The current Public Health Emergency related to the COVID-19 pandemic has been extended for 90 days at a time over the past few years. An end of the PHE would end the continuous coverage provisions and enhanced 6.2 percent Medicaid FMAP match for states and mark the start of a 151-day period before expanded Medicare telehealth authorities expire, along with other flexibilities in Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, and the private insurance market.

Debt limit

Summer 2023

The debt ceiling will likely need to be raised or suspended after a $2.5 trillion debt limit increase enacted in December 2021 is exhausted. Recent estimates have projected that this will happen no earlier than the third quarter of 2023.

Student Loan Executive Order Possible August 2023 In August 2022, the White House announced executive action that provided debt forgiveness for certain borrowers while extending the repayment pause for all borrowers until the end of 2022. The moratorium was again extended to 60 days after either the resolution of student loan litigation or June 30, 2023.

Longer-Term Deadlines

  • FY 2024: Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital cuts begin, continue through FY 2027.
  • End of 2023: Moratorium on payment under the Medicare physician fee schedule for complex services described by Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code G2211 expires; various Medicare extenders expire.
  • Beginning of 2024: Medicare Part D redesign begins, with some reduced costs in 2024 and seniors' drug costs in Medicare capped at $2,000 in 2025.
  • End of 2025: Increased and expanded Affordable Care Act health insurance subsidies expire. (The American Rescue Plan temporarily increased premium tax credits for assistance in buying health insurance from state-based marketplaces created by the ACA and expanded eligibility for premium tax credits to individuals with incomes exceeding 400 percent of the federal poverty line, but only through the end of 2022. The Inflation Reduction Act extended those subsidies for three years, through 2025.) 
  • End of 2025: TCJA individual income tax provisions expire; TCJA paid family leave credit expires; employer-paid student loans income exclusion expires; multiple tax extenders expire such as Empowerment Zones incentives, film and live performances expensing, and the wind energy investment tax credit; health extenders including the Rural Community Hospital Demonstration program; tax exclusion for student debt forgiveness ends.
  • FY 2028: Medicare Hospital Insurance (Part A) Trust Fund exhaustion
  • End of FY 2026: Surface transportation programs authorization provided by Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act expires; Export-Import Bank authorization expires
  • 2027: Highway Trust Fund insolvency
  • 2034: Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund exhaustion (combined OASI and SSDI exhaustion date is 2035)