Upcoming Congressional Fiscal Policy Deadlines

Updated 9/11/2023: The next few years will include several predictable fiscal policy deadlines that will force congressional action. Numerous provisions providing COVID relief expire at the end of the year. Many of the regular non-COVID deadlines could bring additional costs if Congress acts irresponsibly, or they could present an opportunity for Congress to reduce deficits.

We will regularly update this tracker to help reporters, congressional staff, and others interested in fiscal policy keep tabs on major deadlines. We recommend that you bookmark it and come back to check in.

Congress may be compelled to act on each of these dates or enact short-term extensions to move the deadlines to buy time for action. 

Issue Deadline More Information
FCC Spectrum Auction Authority March 9, 2023 Authority for the FCC to grant a license or construction permit through its competitive bidding system expires. The House passed a bill to extend the authority through May 19, but the Senate has not yet acted on it.
Medicaid Assistance for States March 31, 2023/June 30, 2023/September 30, 2023/December 31, 2023 The Medicaid federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP) for states has been temporarily enhanced since the first round of COVID legislation in 2020. A transition plan included in the FY 2023 omnibus continues the 6.2 percentage point bonus for the first quarter of 2023, reduces it to 5 points in the second quarter, reduces it to 2.5 points in the third quarter, and provides a 1.5 point bonus for the fourth quarter.
Student Loan Repayment Pause End of August 2023 In August 2022, the White House announced executive action that provided debt forgiveness for certain borrowers while extending the repayment pause for all borrowers until the end of 2022. The moratorium was again extended to 60 days after either the resolution of student loan litigation or June 30, 2023. The Supreme Court ruling blocking the Biden administration's student loan plan was issued on June 30.
Disaster Relief Fund exhaustion Possible fall 2023 The FEMA Disaster Relief Fund base balance is expected to fall to $556 million by the end of September. A bill introduced in the Senate would appropriate $11.5 billion to replenish the fund. The White House released a supplemental appropriations request that included $12 billion for the fund.
Funding the Government / Appropriations September 30, 2023 Congress enacted a FY 2023 omnibus in late December that funds the government through the end of the fiscal year. Discretionary spending for FY 2024 and FY 2025 will be subject to statutory caps enacted in the Fiscal Responsibility Act. Q&A: Everything You Should Know About Government ShutdownsAppropriations Watch
Agriculture and Nutrition Programs September 30, 2023 The most recent farm bill is scheduled to expire, including crop insurance, nutrition programs such as SNAP, rural development, and agricultural research and conservation programs.
FAA Reauthorization September 30, 2023 The current authorization law for Federal Aviation Administration operational, safety, and infrastructure programs expires. Multi-year reauthorization bills have advanced in the House and Senate.
Child Care Funds Expire September 30, 2023 Both the CARES Act and the American Rescue Plan provided funds for child care facilities to help them remain accessible and financially stable during the COVID-19 pandemic, both through the child care and development block grant and through child care stabilization grants. Many of the funds expire at the end of FY 2023.
National Flood Insurance Program Authorization Expires September 30, 2023 An extension was included in the FY 2023 omnibusMore on NFIP
Authorization of TANF & Related Programs Expires September 30, 2023 Extensions were included in the FY 2023 omnibus.
Medicaid Policies & Extenders September 30, 2023 Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital cuts begin at the start of FY 2024 and continue through FY 2027. The moratorium on payment under the Medicare physician fee schedule for complex services described by Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code G2211 expires, in addition to various Medicare extenders.
Medicare Physician Payments December 31, 2023/December 31, 2024/December 31, 2025

A temporary 3 percent bonus payment for physicians for 2022 was enacted in late 2021. The FY 2023 omnibus modified that bonus structure, providing 2.5% for 2023 and 1.25% in 2024.

In addition, the omnibus provided a one-year extension of the bonus for providers who are part of Alternative Payment Models, through 2025 (reduced to 3.5 percent from 5 percent for that final year). The bill also extends the 50 percent revenue thresholds for qualification for the APM bonuses through 2025.

Continuing Resolution Penalty January 1, 2024 The Fiscal Responsibility Act includes a penalty for the use of a continuing resolution (CR) in FY 2024, reducing both defense and nondefense funding levels by 1 percent if appropriations bills are not enacted by January, which would take effect through a sequestration order to be issued by April 30, 2024. (A similar penalty and timeline also apply for FY 2025.)
Medicare Redesign & Drug Costs January 1, 2024 Medicare Part D redesign begins, with some reduced costs in 2024 and seniors' drug costs in Medicare capped at $2,000 in 2025.
Additional Saving on a Valuable Education (SAVE) Plan Benefits July 2024 Under the Biden administration's Saving on a Valuable Education (SAVE) Plan, a new income-driven repayment program launched in summer 2023 in response to the Supreme Court ruling blocking the administration's student loan forgiveness plan, certain policies will be implemented next year. Changes taking effect in July 2024 include a reduction in undergraduate student loan payments by half and forgiveness of remaining balances after 10 years of payments for original principal balances of $12,000 or less, among others.
Statutory PAYGO December 2024 or January 2025 Statutory pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rules provide for an across-the-board sequester of non-exempt mandatory spending programs if lawmakers enact net deficit-increasing legislation over the course of the year. A provision in the FY 2023 omnibus shifted the sequestration totals from the 2023 and 2024 scorecards and added them to the 2025 scorecard. Statutory PAYGO requires the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to issue a sequestration order within 15 days of the end of a congressional session.

Longer-Term Deadlines

  • Early-to-mid 2025: Debt limit suspension ends on January 1, 2025; extraordinary measures will likely allow for the government to continue to meet its obligations for a few months after that date.
  • End of FY 2025: Statutory discretionary spending caps enacted in the Fiscal Responsibility Act expire. (Targets for spending that are not backed by sequestration remain through FY 2029.)
  • End of calendar year 2025: Increased and expanded Affordable Care Act health insurance subsidies expire. (The American Rescue Plan temporarily increased premium tax credits for assistance in buying health insurance from state-based marketplaces created by the ACA and expanded eligibility for premium tax credits to individuals with incomes exceeding 400 percent of the federal poverty line, but only through the end of 2022. The Inflation Reduction Act extended those subsidies for three years, through 2025.) 
  • End of calendar year 2025: TCJA individual income tax provisions expire; TCJA paid family leave credit expires; employer-paid student loans income exclusion expires; multiple tax extenders expire such as Empowerment Zones incentives, film and live performances expensing, and the wind energy investment tax credit; health extenders including the Rural Community Hospital Demonstration program; tax exclusion for student debt forgiveness ends.
  • End of FY 2026: Surface transportation programs authorization provided by Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act expires; Export-Import Bank authorization expires
  • End of FY 2027: Maternal, Infant, & Early Childhood Home Visiting expiration, Food & Drug Administration user fee programs expiration
  • FY 2028: Highway Trust Fund insolvency
  • FY 2031: Medicare Hospital Insurance (Part A) Trust Fund exhaustion (CBO's June 2023 long-term budget outlook estimated insolvency in 2035)
  • FY 2033: Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund exhaustion (combined OASI and SSDI exhaustion date is 2034; CBO's June 2023 long-term budget outlook estimated OASI insolvency in 2032, SSDI insolvency in 2052 and combined OASI and SSDI exhaustion in 2033)