Appropriations Watch: FY 2023
Updated 1/3/2023: The President signed the FY 2023 omnibus appropriations bill on Thursday, Dec. 29. The House passed the measure by a 221-205-1 vote on Friday, Dec. 23, following Senate passage by a 68-29 vote on Thursday, Dec. 22. To allow more time for full enactment of the omnibus, Congress enacted a third continuing resolution for FY 2023 through Dec. 30.
Congress began scheduling markups for individual appropriations bills for Fiscal Year (FY) 2023 in June. In March, the Biden Administration released its full FY 2023 budget with a base discretionary funding request of $1.582 trillion, 7.4 percent more than the comparable FY 2022 level. Because the statutory caps on discretionary spending expired at the end of FY 2021, lawmakers are not required to appropriate funds within any legal limit.
Congress is supposed to complete a budget resolution to lay out fiscal principles and set an appropriations level by April 15 each year, but lawmakers have not yet adopted one for FY 2023. The House of Representatives instead used a procedure known as "deeming," allowing the Appropriations Committee to begin its work assuming adherence to an overall discretionary spending level known as a 302(a) set by its resolution passed on June 8. The Senate has not yet moved on a deeming resolution, but the Senate Appropriations Committee released its bills at the end of July. Like last year, Senate Republicans have criticized proposed nondefense discretionary spending levels for being too high and defense spending levels for being too low.
As we did last year, we'll be tracking the bills as they move from committee to the House and Senate floor and onto the President's desk.
The table below shows the status of each appropriations bill. To learn more about the appropriations process, read our Appropriations 101 report.
Appropriations will be one of several deadlines Congress will face over the coming months. See a list of the upcoming fiscal deadlines here.
As we explain in Appropriations 101, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees approve 302(b) spending levels for each subcommittee after the topline 302(a) levels are determined by the Budget Committees. Below is an excerpt (click here to read the full report).
The table below compares actual funding for FY 2022 with the FY 2023 302(b) allocations from the House and Senate.
|Budget Authority Allocations to Appropriations Subcommittees (billions)|
|Subcommittee||FY 22 Enacted Level||President's FY 23 Budget||House FY 23||Senate FY 23|
|Commerce, Justice, Science||$75.8||N/A||$85.5||$85.8|
|Energy and Water Development||$52.9||N/A||$56.3||$57.5|
|Financial Services and General Government||$25.5||N/A||$29.8||$29.5|
|Labor, HHS, Education||$197.0||N/A||$224.4||$216.1|
|Legislative Branch||$5.9||N/A||$7.0 ($5.7 House-only spending formally approved)||$6.8 ($4.8 Senate-only spending)|
|Military Construction, VA||$127.6||N/A||$150.5||$152.0|
|State, Foreign Operations||$56.1||N/A||$64.6||$64.6|
|Total||$1.471 trillion*||$1.582 trillion^||$1.603 trillion^||$1.623 trillion|
Sources: House Appropriations Committee, Senate Appropriations Committee, CBO estimate of H.R. 2471 (FY 2022 omnibus), Office of Management and Budget.
*In addition to base discretionary appropriations provided in the table, final FY 2022 spending measures also included changes in mandatory spending programs and adjustments for disaster relief, wildfire suppression, and program integrity. Including these amounts, non-emergency discretionary budget authority for FY 2022 totaled $1.512 trillion.
^According to the House Budget Committee, the deeming resolution incorporates certain technical and scorekeeping adjustments to translate the topline appropriations number from the President's budget request into a formal 302(a) allocation. The House deeming resolution provides for $1.603 trillion in regular appropriations for FY 2023 subject to 302(b)s, 9 percent more than the comparable FY 2022 level. The House measure specifies nearly $25 billion in adjustments for disaster relief, wildfire suppression, and program integrity. The President's budget called for base discretionary funding of $1.582 trillion; total discretionary funding would be $1.598 trillion when considering $26 billion in adjustments for special spending categories and excluding $10 billion of programs shifted to mandatory spending.
As Congress considers appropriations bills, it is important that lawmakers avoid budget gimmicks and stick to the discretionary funding limits in current law until and unless they can agree on a fiscally responsible plan to amend the caps.